● Back Numbers 069〜072


マーク No. 069 Words like "strengthen" (= "make strong") (Part 3)

In this Column and the next Column, I want to look at some quite advanced vocabulary. I will give a list of words which collocate with some of the verbs we have been discussing.

1) heighthen 高くする、高くなる

awareness 認識 tension 緊張状態 his conviction 確信 anticipation 期待 the risk リスク interest 興味
The recent events have heightened tension between the two countries.

2) deepen 深くする、深くなる

knowledge 知識 the influence 影響 hostility 敵意 understanding 理解 his faith 彼の信教 the gloom 陰気 her involvement 彼女の関わり合い the confusion 混乱
Try to deepen your knowlege of European history.

3) widen 広くする、広くなる

knowledge 知識 control 統制 the availability 利用できること the deficit 不足額 the gap 隔たり the coverage 報道/取材 the scope 範囲
The gap between the rich and poor is widening.

4) sharpen 鋭くする、鋭くなる

my wit 自分の機知 my appetite 自分の食欲/欲望 awareness 認識 my memory 自分の記憶力 his insight 彼の洞察力 her knowledge 彼女の知識 
These are some mental exercises which will help you to sharpen your memory.

5) strenghten 強める、強まる

an argument 論拠 security 安全保障/警備 the company's presence 会社の存在(感)the deterrence 防止 our defence 防衛 the economy 経済 my resolve 自分の決心 relations 関係
We want to strenghten our company's presence in certain overseas markets.

6) weaken 弱くする

a position 立場 the power 権力 cooperation 協力 support 支持 his resolve 彼の決心 her influence 彼女の影響 the economy 経済 her willpower 彼女の意思の力
The signal from the spacecraft seems to have weakened.

● Words & Phrases ●
  • collocate with

(帝京大学教授 Christopher Barnard)




マーク No. 070 Words like 'strengthen' (= 'make strong') (Part 4)

This Column is a continuation from the previous one. I hope that you find the words and expressions in these two Columns interesting.

I have continued the numbering from the previous Column.

7) stiffen 強化する、硬化させる

resistance 抵抗 the opposition 反対 national security 国家安全保障
It is necessary that our party stiffens its resistance to the government bill.

8) loosen 緩める、緩和する

the regulations 規則 the links 繋がり monetary policy 金融政策 a constraint 制約
They say that the Bank of Japan is going to loosen its monetry policy.

9) harden 固くする

an attitude 態度 my heart 心 my stance 立場
After your recent comments, my attitude to you has hardened.

10) soften 柔らかくする

an attitude 態度 disagreement 意見の対立 the opposition 反対 the barb とげのある言葉 the insult 侮辱 her rejection 彼女の拒絶
His smile did little to soften his unkind barb.

11) tighten きつくする

the regulations 規則 security 安全保障/警備 the rules ルール control 統制 an economic blockade 経済封鎖 some of the exceptions 幾つかの例外
The security in this building has been greatly tightened.

12) lighten 軽くする

a burden 負担 the load 負担 the atmosphere 雰囲気 her spirit 彼女の機嫌
Is there anything I can do to help to lighten your burden?

13) gladden 喜ばせる

my heart 私の心
What you have just said has gladdened my heart.

14) blacken 黒くする(比喩的に用いる)

his reputation 彼の評判 her character 彼女の人格 the name 名声 his record 彼の成績
Your reputation is so black, that no one can blacken it further.

15) sweeten 甘くする(比喩的に用いる)

an offer 申し出(値段) the sale 販売 the pill 錠剤(=嫌なことを受け入れやすくする)
Okay, I will sweeten my offer by adding another 10%.

● Words & Phrases ●
  • numbering
  • blacken 〜's reputation

(帝京大学教授 Christopher Barnard)


 みなさんは、前後がひっくり返ってペアになっている名詞があるのをご存知でしょう。代表的なものがoutlook - lookout、upturn - turnupなどです。しかし、これらはどのように意味が違い、また、そもそもどうしてこのような二種類の名詞が出来たのでしょう。このことを知ることにより、ボキャブラリーが広がるばかりでなく、文法に対する知識も深まることになるのです。

マークNo. 071 An outlook vs. a lookout (Part 1)
      --- outlookとlookoutはどう違う?(その1)

Both these nouns are formed from the idiom (ie, phrasal verb) 'look out'. These two nouns are examples of different ways we can make nouns from phrasal verbs:

1. Sometimes a noun can be formed from a phrasal verb like this:

look out > lookout 見張り、見張り人、(高い)見張り所;
break out > breakout(囚人の)集団脱走

2. And sometimes a noun can be formed from a phrasal verb like this:

look out > outlook 見晴らし、見通し
turn up > upturn(物価の)上昇、(景色の)好転

I will call the first of these Type 1, and the second Type 2.

Nouns of Type 1 are more common than those of Type 2, and we perhaps even do not think of them as being formed from phrasal verbs, but just think of them as being nouns in their own right. For example, this sentence:

Takeoff was at six o'clock exactly.

Probably most speakers of English (native speakers and learners) do not consciously think that this is related to:

The plane took off at six o'clock exactly.

In this Column will give examples of Type 1. In the next Column, I will give examples of Type 2.

1) I often work out in the afternoon.
> I often have a workout in the afternoon. 〔トレーニング〕
2) A very large number of people turned out to vote in the election.
> The turnout for the election was very high. 〔人出、投票者総数〕
3) The rocket blasted off right on time.
> The blastoff of the rocket was right on time.〔打ち上げ〕
4) I love to lie in bed late on Sunday mornings.
> I love to have a lie-in on Sunday mornings.〔朝寝〕
5) You have fucked everything up.
> You have caused a fuck up. 〔混乱、ごたごた〕《卑》
6) The people at the Ward Office made me run around to different sections and departments.
> The people at the Ward Office gave me the runaround.〔たらい回し〕
7) The police are searching for the prisoner who ran away.
> The police are searching for the runaway. 〔逃亡者〕
8) The tunnel caved in and some people were hurt.
> There was a cave-in in the tunnel and some people were hurt. 〔落盤〕
9) The government is going to bail out the banks.
> There is going to be a bail-out of the banks by the government. 〔(企業に対する国の)救済措置〕

This method of forming nouns from phrasal verbs is a common one in English.

In a later Column, I will give some more examples of Type 1 "phrasal verb > noun".

In the next Column, I will look at what I called Type 2 ways of forming nouns from phrasal verbs.

● Words & Phrases ●
  • form A from B
  • in one's own right
  • consciously
  • think of A as B

(帝京大学教授 Christopher Barnard)



マーク No. 072 An outlook vs. a lookout (Part 2)
      --- outlookとlookoutはどう違う?(その2)

In this Column I will look at nouns which are formed from phrasal verbs in the following manner:

look out > outlook 見晴らし、見通し
turn up > upturn (物価の) 上昇、(景色の) 好転
break out > outbreak 発生、勃発

These are examples of what I called the Type 2 pattern, which, as I mentioned, is far less common than the Type 1 pattern.

Sometimes the nouns of Type 1 pattern seem to be just ordinary nouns, and we do not usually notice the fact that there is a phrasal verb "inside" them. Examples of this are:

money comes in > income 収入
wear it under my clothes > underwear 下着

Perhaps most readers of this Column will not connect "let out" (発する、外に出す) with "outlet" (店、アウットレット).

But what about "inlet"? If we have "outlet", it seems probable that we also have "inlet", formed from "let in". And in fact that is the case:
let in 中へ入れる > inlet 入り江、(水の) 入り口

Here are some examples of Type 2 nouns:

1) We have taken 205 new people in to our company this year.
> Our company's intake of new people for this year is 205.
2) I laid out more than ten million yen to buy the diamond.
> My outlay on the diamond was more than ten million yen.
3) This road passes over that one.
> This road is an overpass.
〔(立体交差の) 上の道路、高架道路 ⇔underpass〕
4) It is very expensive to keep up this old castle.
> The upkeep of this old castle is very expensive. 〔維持 (費)〕

In a later Column, I will give some more examples of Type 2 "phrasal verb > noun".

● Words & Phrases ●
  • in the following manner
  • far less common

(帝京大学教授 Christopher Barnard)




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